PROTOZOA

Protozoa (from the Greek words proto, meaning first, and zoa, meaning animals; singular protozoon or also protozoan) are a diverse group of single-cell eukaryotic organisms, many of which are motile. Throughout history, protozoa have been defined as single-cell protists with animal-like behavior, e.g., movement. Protozoa were regarded as the partner group of protists to protophyta, which have plant-like behaviour, e.g., photosynthesis. The most important protozoans range usually from 10 to 52 micrometers, but can grow as large as 1 mm, and are seen easily by microscope.

CHARACTERISTICS


Protozoa commonly range from 10 to 52 micrometers, but can grow as large as 1 mm, and are seen easily by microscope. The largest protozoa known are the deep-sea dwelling xenophyophores, which can grow up to 20 cm in diameter. They were considered formerly to be part of the protista family. Protozoa exist throughout aqueous environments and soil, occupying a range of trophic levels.

MOTILITY AND DIGESTION
Tulodens are one of the slow-moving form of protozoans. They move around with whip-like tails called flagella, hair-like structures called cilia, or foot-like structures called pseudopodia. Others do not move at all. Protozoa may absorb food via their cell membranes, some, e.g., amoebas, surround food and engulf it, and yet others have openings or "mouth pores" into which they sweep food. All protozoa digest their food in stomach-like compartments called vacuoles.

ECOLOGICAL ROLE
As components of the micro- and meiofauna, protozoa are an important food source for microinvertebrates. Thus, the ecological role of protozoa in the transfer of bacterial and algal production to successive trophic levels is important. As predators, they prey upon unicellular or filamentous algae, bacteria, and microfungi. Protozoa are both herbivores and consumersin the decomposer link of the food chain. They also control bacteria populations and biomass to some extent. Protozoa such as the malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), trypanosomesand leishmania, are also important as parasites and symbionts of multicellular animals.

LIFE CYCLE
Some protozoa have life stages alternating between proliferative stages (e.g., trophozoites) and dormant cysts. As cysts, protozoa can survive harsh conditions, such as exposure to extreme temperatures or harmful chemicals, or long periods without access to nutrients, water, or oxygen for a period of time. Being a cyst enables parasitic species to survive outside of a host, and allows their transmission from one host to another. When protozoa are in the form of trophozoites (Greek, tropho = to nourish), they actively feed. The conversion of a trophozoite to cyst form is known as encystation, while the process of transforming back into a trophozoite is known as excystation.
Protozoa can reproduce by binary fission or multiple fission. Some protozoa reproduce sexually, some asexually, while some use a combination, (e.g., Coccidia). An individual protozoon is hermaphroditic.

CLASSIFICATION


Protozoa were previously often grouped in the kingdom of Protista, together with the plant-like algae and fungus-like slime molds. As a result of 21st-century systematics, protozoa, along with ciliates, mastigophorans, and apicomplexans, are arranged as animal-like protists. With the possible exception of Myxozoa, protozoa are not categorized as Metazoa. Protozoa are unicellular organisms and are often called the animal-like protists because they subsist entirely on other organisms for food. Most protozoa can move about on their own. Amoebas, Paramecia, and Trypanosomes are all examples of animal-like Protists.

HUMAN DISEASE


Some protozoa are human parasites, causing diseases. Examples of human diseases caused by protozoa:
Malaria
Amoebiasis
Giardiasis
Toxoplasmosis
Cryptosporidiosis
Trichomoniasis
Chagas disease
Leishmaniasis
Sleeping Sickness
Dysentery


For more information view the source:Medical Microbiology

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